Botanical Name : Datura metel Linn


 Introduction :

Dhattüra is found in Panini’s works. Sounaka quoted ‘Kanaknaka’ as a poisonous plant which is equated to Datura.Scientific classification: Daturas belong to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Angel’s trumpet is classified as Datura inoxia, horn of plenty as Datura metel, and jimsonweed as Datura stramonium.

Names in different Indian languages :

English : Thorn-apple,Downy Datura

Hindi : Dhatura,kaladhattura

Kannada : unmatta

Malayalam : unmattu

Sanskrit : Dhatturah,dhustrurah

Tamil : Ummattai

Telugu : Ummattai

Unani : Dhaturaa

Synonyms :

Dhattuura, Dhuurta, Dhastura, Unmatta, Shivapriya, Harapriya, Hema, Haatta, Dhustuura, Dhustuuraka, Kanaka, Maatula.Also equated with Raaj-dhatuura. (white var.)

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants)  :

1. sveta   D. stramonium

2. Krsna D. metel

 3. Nila, Krsna,

4. Rakta

 5. D. tatula

6. Pita varieties.

7. D. innoxiä.

 8. D. alba Nees

9. D. fastuosa

Morphology :

spreading annual herb or shrub 1-2 m. height, pubesscent.

Leaves— large, entire sinuate or toothed, unequal.

Flowers— erect, whitish- purple; calyx long- tubular, 5-toothed at apex; corolla long-tubular to funnel-shaped.

Fruit— capsule globose or ellipsoid, spinous, 4-valved or irregularly breaking up.

Seeds— Compressed, rugose, brown, yellowish brown.

Distribution & Habitat :

Throughout India

Chemical constituents :

Hyoscine, Scopalamine, daturadiol, daturalone, factusine, beta- sitosterol, hyosine, hyoscyamine, fastudine, fastunine, fastusidine, fastusinine; daturanolone, allantoin, norhyoscyamine, datumetine, datumetlin, datumelin, daturilin, daturilinol, withametelin, niacin, vit.C, apohyoscine, norhyscine, cuscohygrine, meteloidine, noratropine, tropine, pseudotropine, apoatropine, daturametelin A & B etc.

Properties :

Rasa :  Tikta,

Vipaka :  Katu

Virya :   Usna

Guna :  Laghu, Ruksa Katu

Karma : Kapha-vata hara, Visaghna, Vrana, Kandü, Krimi, Kãsahara.

Indication :

Jwara, Kustha, Visha roga, Mütra Kricchra,Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, emetic, useful  asthma, cough, ulcer, skin diseases, lumbago, sciatica, epilepsy, dandruff etc.

Part used :

 Leaves, seed, root (seeds are purified by processing in dolayantra along with cow’s milk). Seeds are kept in cow’s urine for a week for purification.

Dosage :

Seed powder 50-100 mg

External uses :

Leaf juice is applied in alopecia and inflammation. The paste of turmeric with juice of dhattura leaves is used in mastitis. In  galactorrhoea, hot fomentation of leaves is effective.

Internal uses :

Central nervous system : It is an intoxicant

Respiratory system : Fomentation of the leaves and seeds is useful in asthma.

Reproductive system : Seeds are useful as aphrodisiac in some patients.

Digestive system : Formulations of dhattura seeds are used in enteric pains. Formulations like sutashekhar are useful in pain induced by pitta.

Temperature : In fever with rigors, dhattura seeds in curds are given before rigors start. It alleviates rigors and also post pyrexia burning sensation and bodyache

Important Yogas  or  Formulations :

Kanakäsava, Sutasekhara rasa, Mahavisagarbha taila, Unmattarasa     

Therapeutic Uses :

1. Alarkavisa— Dhattüra and sveta Punarnavã combination is a very effective remedy (S.S.Ka. 7). – I am not recommending this treatment to patients.

2. Krimi— Juice of Dhattura leaves mixed with mercury or juice of heated leaves singly destroys ticks and lice on local application (V.M.)

3. Juice of Mandukaparni and paste of Dhattura root destroys the boils (C.D.).

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