Botanical Name : Datura metel Linn
Family : SOLANACEAE
Dhattüra is found in Panini’s works. Sounaka quoted ‘Kanaknaka’ as a poisonous plant which is equated to Datura.Scientific classification: Daturas belong to the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Angel’s trumpet is classified as Datura inoxia, horn of plenty as Datura metel, and jimsonweed as Datura stramonium.
Names in different Indian languages :
English : Thorn-apple,Downy Datura
Hindi : Dhatura,kaladhattura
Kannada : unmatta
Malayalam : unmattu
Sanskrit : Dhatturah,dhustrurah
Tamil : Ummattai
Telugu : Ummattai
Unani : Dhaturaa
Dhattuura, Dhuurta, Dhastura, Unmatta, Shivapriya, Harapriya, Hema, Haatta, Dhustuura, Dhustuuraka, Kanaka, Maatula.Also equated with Raaj-dhatuura. (white var.)
Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :
1. sveta D. stramonium
2. Krsna D. metel
3. Nila, Krsna,
5. D. tatula
6. Pita varieties.
7. D. innoxiä.
8. D. alba Nees
9. D. fastuosa
spreading annual herb or shrub 1-2 m. height, pubesscent.
Leaves— large, entire sinuate or toothed, unequal.
Flowers— erect, whitish- purple; calyx long- tubular, 5-toothed at apex; corolla long-tubular to funnel-shaped.
Fruit— capsule globose or ellipsoid, spinous, 4-valved or irregularly breaking up.
Seeds— Compressed, rugose, brown, yellowish brown.
Distribution & Habitat :
Chemical constituents :
Hyoscine, Scopalamine, daturadiol, daturalone, factusine, beta- sitosterol, hyosine, hyoscyamine, fastudine, fastunine, fastusidine, fastusinine; daturanolone, allantoin, norhyoscyamine, datumetine, datumetlin, datumelin, daturilin, daturilinol, withametelin, niacin, vit.C, apohyoscine, norhyscine, cuscohygrine, meteloidine, noratropine, tropine, pseudotropine, apoatropine, daturametelin A & B etc.
Rasa : Tikta,
Vipaka : Katu
Virya : Usna
Guna : Laghu, Ruksa Katu
Karma : Kapha-vata hara, Visaghna, Vrana, Kandü, Krimi, Kãsahara.
Jwara, Kustha, Visha roga, Mütra Kricchra,Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, emetic, useful asthma, cough, ulcer, skin diseases, lumbago, sciatica, epilepsy, dandruff etc.
Part used :
Leaves, seed, root (seeds are purified by processing in dolayantra along with cow’s milk). Seeds are kept in cow’s urine for a week for purification.
Seed powder 50-100 mg
External uses :
Leaf juice is applied in alopecia and inflammation. The paste of turmeric with juice of dhattura leaves is used in mastitis. In galactorrhoea, hot fomentation of leaves is effective.
Internal uses :
Central nervous system : It is an intoxicant
Respiratory system : Fomentation of the leaves and seeds is useful in asthma.
Reproductive system : Seeds are useful as aphrodisiac in some patients.
Digestive system : Formulations of dhattura seeds are used in enteric pains. Formulations like sutashekhar are useful in pain induced by pitta.
Temperature : In fever with rigors, dhattura seeds in curds are given before rigors start. It alleviates rigors and also post pyrexia burning sensation and bodyache
Important Yogas or Formulations :
Kanakäsava, Sutasekhara rasa, Mahavisagarbha taila, Unmattarasa
Therapeutic Uses :
1. Alarkavisa— Dhattüra and sveta Punarnavã combination is a very effective remedy (S.S.Ka. 7). – I am not recommending this treatment to patients.
2. Krimi— Juice of Dhattura leaves mixed with mercury or juice of heated leaves singly destroys ticks and lice on local application (V.M.)
3. Juice of Mandukaparni and paste of Dhattura root destroys the boils (C.D.).