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Botanical Name : Santalum album Linn.

Family : Santalaceae

Introduction :

Chandana is considered as an aromatic substance which is utilized for external application along with other drugs.

Scientific classification: Sandalwoods make up the family Santalaceae in the order Santalales. The largest family in the order Santalales is Loranthaceae. The representative genus is Santalum. True sandalwood is classified as Santalum album.

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

1. Candana

2. Rakta candana

3. Kucandana (Patranga)

4. Kaliyaka

5. Barbarikã.

6. Goira

7. ripriya

8. Sambhräna

9. Kakubha

10. Barbarikã

11. Patanga

12. Haricandana.

  1. sveta (white)    2.Krsna (black)    3.Rakta (red).

13. Pita candana

14. Kairata candana

15. Sukvadi.

Generally, sveta Candana is used for the preparation of Curna, taila, kashaya, Asava and Lehyas while Rakta Candana is used for Lepas.

Morphology :

A small or medium-sized tree, with slender branches, 18 m high

Bark— dark grey or nearly black or red-dish.

Sapwood— unscented and whitish yellow, but heartwood scented and light yellowish brown (fresh one) or dark brown or reddish brown (dried).

Leaves— elliptic- ovate of ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, 2-9.0 cm x 1.5-3.5 cm size.

Flowers— maxillary and terminal paniculate brownish purple, violet or straw-coloured.

Fruit— drupe, purple-black, globose.

Seeds— globose or ovoid.

Habitat & Distribution :

Found in dry-scrub forests, Vindhya mountains, mainly in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.


Rasa Tikta, Madhura

Guna Laghu, Ruksa

Virya sita

Vipaka Katu

Karma Kapha -pittahara, Dähaprasamana, varnya, vranahara, kasaghna, kushtaghna

Cooling, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, antiseptic

Indications— Dãha, Jvara, Kustha, Visarpa, Kandü, Trsnä, Raktapitta

Fever, urinary track infections, cough, asthma, skin disease, menprrhagia, jaundice

Part Used— Heart wood, Volatile oil

Dosage— Powder 3-5g, decoction 50-100 ml

Chemical composition : 3 to 6% volatile oil is derived from the heartwood and roots. Roots contain comparatively more oil, 125 gin of oil can be derived from 20 kgs. ,of sandalwood. This oil is yellow, thick, having fragrance, bitter and pungent. Sandalwood oil contains 90% santalol.

Sandalwood oil— ct—santalol, —santene, and santalenes, santenol, teresantalol, nor-tricycloekasantalal, 1 -santenone, santanone, teresantalic acid, a—and —santanta1ic acids.

Important Yoga’s or Formations :

Chandanadi churna, Chandanadi vati, Chandanasava, Chandanabala-Iakshadi taila. Cañdanãdi ghrta, Candanãditaila, Candanäsava, Candanadi Kvãtha,

Important research work  going on

1. bleeding diseases

2. action on skin

Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Parmeha— In sukrameha— the decoction of Arjuna & Candana is recommended and in Mañjisthã meha, the decoction of Mañjisthã & Candana is recommended (S.S.Ci. 11).

(2) Chardi— Candana is given along with the juice of Amalaki

(C.S.Ci. 20).

(3) Pradara— Candana is given with milk, ghee, sugar and honey (G.N.)

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