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Botanical Name : Piper nigrum Linn.

Family : Piperaceae

Introduction :

Maricha used as appetizer, carminative and anti-microbial also used in kitchens. There have white Varity that describing in Samhitas it may be the seeds of M.pterygosperma.

Scientific classification: Peppers make up the family Piperaceae of the order Piperales. Its representative genus is Piper. Pepper elders constitute the genus Peperomia. The pepper plant is classified as Piper nigrum. Chili and sweet peppers are derived from plants of the genus Capsicum, of the family Solanaceae. The Polynesian beverage kava is produced from the plant classified as Piper methysticum. The lizard’s-tail family is Saururaceae. The yerba mansa is classified as Anemopsis californica. The other family in the order Piperales is Chloranthaceae

Names in different Indian languages :

Hindi : Kali Mirchi

Telugu : Miriyalu

Tamil : Milaku, marisam

English : Black pepper

Marathi : Mirin

Gujrati : Kalamari

Bengali : Golmarich

Kannada : Karemanesu, ollimonasu, miri

Malayalam : Kurumulaku

Sanskrit : Maricha

Unani : Filfil Siyaah, Safed

Synonyms :

Vellaja, Uushna, Suvrrita, Krishnaa.

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :


Dipaniya, sulaprasamana, Krimighna, sirovirecanopaga


Pippalyãdi, Tryusana


Pippalyãdi (AS.); Vatsakãdi (A.H.)

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

1. Black – processed

2. White – un-processed

3. Ksupaja Marica – unknown

4. Sveta(white) seeds of M.pterygosperma. [CV]

Piper alba

Morphology :

A branching & climbing perennial shrub. Branches stout, trailing and rooting at the nodes.

Leaves— simple, entire, 12.5-17.5 cm x 5.0-12.5 cm. glaucous beneath base acute, cordate.

Flowers— minute, borne in spike, usually dioecious, but the female often bears anthers and the male a pistillode. Fruiting spikes variable in length and rachis glabrous.

Fruits – globes or avoid, one seeded, bright red when ripe.

Seeds— globose, testa thin, perisperm hard

Flowers in rainy season and fruits in autumn.

Habitat & Distribution :

Mainly south-western India. Cultivated in Assam, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala.

Chemical Constituents :

Piperene, piperethint, piperolein A & B, feruperine, dihydroferuperine, citronellol, cryptone. dihydrocarveol,  beta – pinene, piperonal. camphene, beta-caryophyllene. Beta -alanine, pipecolic acid, carotene, ascorbic acid, pipercide etc.

Properties :

Rasa Katu

Guna  Laghu. Tikshna

Virya Usna

Vipäka  Katu

Karma : Kapha-vatahara, Avrsya. Dipana,pachana,krimighna, kasaghna

Carminative, anti periodic, digestive, anthelmintic, stomachic, diuretic, Stimulant, anticholerin, sialagogue, bechic, antiasthmatic.

Indications :

Pinasa, Kãsa, Pravahiak, Hrdroga, Krimi, sväsa, süla.

Useful in arthritis, asthma,  fever, cough, catarrh, haemorrhoids, dysentery, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion

Part Used :

Fruit .

Dosage :

Powder 0.5-1 g.

Important Yogas or Formations :

Maha Marcyãdi taila, Maricyãdi taila, Teka rãja Marica, Agnitundivati, Maricyãdi cürna

Important research work going on :

(1) anti bacterial property

(2) Anti aconitum  activity

(3) anti viral activity

(4) antifungal property

(5) insecticidal activity

(6) antitumor action

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) Kãsa— Marica is given with sugar candy, ghee and honey(S.S.Ut. 52118).

(2) Pamã— Powder of Marica shall he given with fresh cow ghee (Vai. Ma.)

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