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Botanical Name:  Azadirachta indica

Family : Meliaceae   

 Introduction :

This plant very useful in skin disease. it  used as biological pesticide. Seed oil using for hair fall.

Names in different Indian languages :

English : Neem tree,Margosa tree,Indian lilac

Hindi : nim

Kannada : Turakabevu,huccabevu,cikkabevu

Malayalam : Veppu,aryaveppu,kaippanveppu

Sanskrit : Nimbah,prabhadrah

Tamil : Vempu,veppu,Arulundi

Telugu : Kindavepu,turakavepu

Unani : Aazaad

Synonyms :

Arita, Picumarda, Picumanda, Sarvatobhadra, Hinguniryasa, Yavanesta,Sukapriya, Netã, Subhadra, Prabhadra, Sutiktã, Nimba, Nimbaka,Arishtaphala, Pichumarda, Pichumanda, Pichumandaka, Tiktaka, Paaribhadra,Melia azadirachta Linn

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Charaka : Kandughna, Tiktaskandha

Susrutha : Aragvadhadi, Gudücyãdi, Lãksãdi

Vagbhata : Aragvadhadi, Gudücyãdi, Lãksãdi

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

1. Nimba = Azadirachta indica

2. Mahã Nimba = Ailanthus exelsa.

Morphology :

It is a large tree growing up to 20-25 m. high

Leaves- imparipinnate, crowded at the ends, of branches; leaflets 9-17, opposite, sub opposite; lanceolate, acuminate, serrate or dentate, glabrous.

Flowers-numerous, white, honey-scented.

Fruits- 1- seeded drupes, oblong, yellow when ripe.

Seeds contain oil. (Flowers in February-April and fruits during June-August)

Distribution & Habitat :

Commonly found in various parts of India.

Chemical constituents :

 Leaves— Azadirachtin, azadirachtanin, azadirone, nimbandiol, nimbin, nimbolide etc.

Stem bark— nimbin, nimbidin, nimbinin, sitosterol, kulinone, margosinolide etc.

Root bark—nimbin, nimbidin.

Fruits—Azadirachtin, azadirachtol, azadirachnol, melianone, nimbiol, nimocin etc.

Seed oil—Tocopherol, azadirone, azadiradione, nimbinin, salannol, nimbin, nimbidin etc.

Flowers—Azadiradione, margosene, linoleic acid, arachidic acid etc.

Properties :

Rasa: Tikta, Kasaya

Guna: Laghu, Rüksa

Virya : Sita

Vipäka : Katu

Karma : Kapha-pittahara, Dipana, Grãhi, Krmighna, Netrya,Leaf, bark—antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, antiviral, antipyretic, antimalarial, antiperiodic, mosquito larvicidal, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, spermicidal, hypoglycaemic,Oil—used

Indication :

Kãsa, Chardi, Kustha, Krimi, Prameha, Vrana, Arsas,gulma, Netra roga, Kandu.

Eczema,T.B, tumour,pruritus, diabetes ,leucoderma,anorexia  

used in inflammation of gums, gingivitis, periodonitis, sores, boils, enlargement of spleen, malarial fever, fever during childbirth, measles, smallpox, head scald and cutaneous affections.

Oil—used as a contraceptive for intravaginal use, for the treatment of vaginal infections, and as a mosquito repellent.

Part used :

Leaves, bark,oil, seed

Dosage :

Dried leaf—2–4g powder; 12–15 g for decoction;

stembark— 5–6 g powder decoction for external use.

Leaf juice— 10–15ml;

oil—1–3 drops;

bark decoction—50–100 ml.

Internal uses :

Digestive system : By its astringent and bitter property it improves taste and is constipative.

Fruit is purgative.

Leaves are stimulant of liver. Its bark decoction with honey is useful In jaundice, anorexia, vomiting, dysentery, intestinal worms, liver diseases. Ointment prepared from seeds is applied in piles.

Respiratory system : Its property of tikta reduces the kapha from respiratory passage. Leaves are more useful in excessive mucous secretion, Bark decoction is used in chronic cough. 30- 60 cc of liquid collected from the trunk is given in TB.

Urinary system : It is effective in diabetes.

Reproductive system : its seed uterine stimulant. Seed powder is used in dysmenorrheal. Continuous use of leaves leads to a decrease in the shukra dhatus. it is a uterine Ionic. Since it is excreted in human milk, it is useful in preventing cough and skin diseases in infants.

Skin : It is useful in all skin conditions specially in burning sensation.

Satmikaran : In general debility, young leaves and gum is useful. The concept behind chewing nimbo leaves on Marathi is to prevent kapha disease. watery discharge from nimba is useful in emaciation and TB. Nimba is best rasayan in medo -roga (fat disorders)

Temperature : Antipyretic. useful in chronic kapha jwara. malarial fever & fever.

Eyes : Tender leaves anti flowers are useful in many skin disorders,

Important Yogas  or  Formulations :

Nimbadichurna. Nimbarishta. Nimbadi kashaya,Arogyavardhini Rasa (Bhãvana dravya), NimbaHaridra khanda, nimbadi taila           

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) Skin diseases –  leaves and Amalaki dried fruit are mixed with ghee and given regularly.

(2) jwara—leaf juice

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