Botanical Name : Butea monosperma
Family : Papilionaceae; Fabaceae
It is the most important plants for the Yajna. Its gum (red coloured) is also described in vedic texts. it used in the management of Arsas, Atisãra, Raktapitta, Kustha, Raktaja Gulma etc.
The flame tree belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae, family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae).
The Chinese flame tree belongs to the Sapindaceae family and is classified as Koelreuteria bipinnata.
Names in different Indian languages :
English : Flame of the Forest,Butea Gum, Bengal Kino,bastard teak
Hindi : Dhak,palash
Kannada : muttagamara
Malayalam : Plasu,chamata
Sanskrit : palasah
Tamil : Camata,purasus
Telugu : moduga
Unani : Dhaak,Samagh Dhaak,Kamarkas
Folk : Tesu
Kimsuka, Ksãrarestha, Brahmopanetra, Rakta puspa, Samidvara, Brahma Vrksa, Vãtapotha, Triparni , Paalasha, Kimshuka, Raktapushpaka, Kshaarshreshtha, Brahmavriksha, Samidvar.
B. frondosa Koenig ex Roxb.
Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :
Susrutha : Rodhrãdi, Muskakãdi, Ambasthãdi, Nyagrodhãdi
Vagbhata : Rodhrãdi, Muskakãdi, Ambasthãdi, Nyagrodhãdi
Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :
1. Latapalsa – B. superb Roxb
2. Rakta (red),
3. Pita (yellow)
4. Sveta (white)
5. Neela (blue).
A deciduous tree growing up to 15 m. height and 1.5-2 m in girth, trunk is crooked. Bark light-brown or bluish-grey, yielding a ruby-red vitreous gum(Butea gum or Bengal keno) Wood-white or yellow-brown.
Leaves trifoliolate, large, unequal, 10.5-20.5 cm.
Flowers- in racemes, brilliant orange-red, 4-6 cm. long; lower calyx-teeth deltoid.
Fruits- pods, silvery-white, broad, dehiscent (by one suture).
seeds- flat, elliptic, reddish-grey, 3 cm.
Distribution & Habitat :
Chemical constituents :
butin, butrin, isobutrin, palastrin, butrin, coreopsin, monospermoside , sulphurein, chalcones.
Flowers— butin, isocorcopsin, monospermoide, butein (major glucoside), isomonospermoside, coreopsin, palasitrin.
Roots— Glycine, Jalaric esters I, II, III & IV etc
Gum— leucocyanidin, procyanidin etc.
Seeds— monaspermin, palasonin, essential oil with myristic, palmitic acids etc.
Rasa- Katu, Tikta, Kasaya
Guna -Laghu, Snigdha
Virya – Usna
Vipaka – Katu
Karma : Vãta-kapha hara, Grãhi, Krmighna, Dipana
Bark—astringent, styptic (prescribed in bleeding piles, ulcers, haemorrhages, menstrual disorders), anthelmintic.
Flowers—astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue (also given for leucorrhoea). A decoction of flowers is given in diarrhoea and haematuria, also to puerperal women.
Seeds—clinical use of seeds as an anthelmintic drug is not considered safe in humans
Krimi, Pliha roga, Gulma, Grahani, Arsaas. astringent, bleeding piles, ulcers, haemorrhages (menstrual disorders), anthelmintic. diuretic, emmenagogue (also given for leucorrhoea).Antibacterial,antifungal
Part used :
stem bark, flowers, seeds, gum , ash
Bark decoction 50-100 ml, seed powder 5-8 g, flower powder 5-6 g, gum 2-4 g
Important Yogas or Formulations :
Krmimudgararas, Palãgaksãra taila
Therapeutic Uses :
1. Slipada-Juice of Palãsa root and equal quantity of Sarsapa are given with oil (V.M). .
2. Krimi- Seed paste or juice of Palãsa may be taken with butter milk (S.S.Ut.54)
3. Pumsavana- The pregnant lady (2-3 months after conception) may be given paste of one palasa leave with milk (B. P).