Aardraka

Botanical Name: Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Family:  Zingiberaceae

Introduction: Mainly dried ginger using in Ayurveda formulation.. So it used as the prashepa dravyas for many drugs.

Names in different Indian languages:

English : Ginger

Hindi : Adarak

Kannada : Hasisunti, Ardraka

Malayalam : Inci, Erukkilannu

Sanskrit : Ardrakam

Tamil : Inji, Allam, Lokottai

Telugu : Allamu,ardrakamu

Unani : Zanjabeele- Ratab,Al-Zanjabeel

 Dry  Rhizome

English : Dry Ginger

Hindi : Soth

Kannada: sunti

Malayalam: Chukku

Sanskrit : Sunthi, Visvabhesajam

Tamil : Chukku, Sunthi

Telugu : Sunti

Unani : zanjabeel,Zanjabeel-eyaabis.

Synonyms :

Fresh rhizome—

Aardraka, Aadrikaa, Shrngibera, shrngavera, Katubhadra.

Dried rhizome—

Shunthi, Naagara,Naagaraa, Naagaraka, Aushadha, Mahaushadha, Vishvaa, Vishvabheshaja, Vishvaaushadha

Amomum zingiber L.

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Charaka : Triptighna, Arsoghna, Dipaniya, sulaprasamana, Trisnã nigrahana

Susrutha : Pippalyãdi, Trikatu

Vagbhata : Pippalyãdi, Trikatu

 Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

1. Dry Ginger – Nagara, Visvabhesaja

2. Fresh Ginger – Ardraka, Srngabera.

Morphology:

An erect perennial herb with aromatic rhizome.

Stem— erect, leafy, 15-150 cm tall.

Leaves— subsessile, linear-lanceolate or lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 10-30 cm long.

Flowers— shoot upto 15 cm long, clothed with sheaths; bracts -2-5 cm x 2 cm, light green; corolla tube light yellow, lip orbicular, dull purple with creamy blotches.

Flowering and fruiting during July-September

Habitat  & Distribution :

All over India, Srilanka, Nepal

Chemical composition :

geranial and neral; and sesquiterpenes, beta-sesquiphellandrene, betabisabolene,

ar-curcumene and alphazingiberene, gingerols, shogaols, curcumene, beta-boürbornene, d-borneal, citral, d-camphene, citronellol, geraniol, gingerol, a- & beta- Zingiberenes, zingiberol, zingerone, gingerols, paradol, gingerenone A, ginger glycolipids A, B, & C; gingerdiol; gingerone B & C

Properties :

Rasa :  Katu

Guna :  Guru Ruksa, Tiksna

Virya :  Usna

Vipãka :  Madhura

 Karma : Vãta-kaphahara, Dipana, Bhedana,pachana, vrisya, balya, rochana, sophahara, jwaraghna

antiemetic, antiflatulent, hypocholesterolaemic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, expectorant, laxative,circulatory stimulant, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, hypotensive and hepatoprotective.

Gingerol and shogaol have been shown to suppress gastric contractions. Both fresh and dried rhizomes suppress gastric secretion and reduce vomiting

Indications :

Sula, Amavãta, Adhmãna, Atisãra, slipada, Kãsa, svãsa, Hrdroga, sopha, Arsas, Hikkã, Vibandha, Raktapitta, Pãndu, Vrana, Jvara. Kustha, Agnimãndya

Irritable bowel , diarrhoea, fever,cough, asthma,flatulence,colic, colds ,influenza,migraine, nausea, vomiting

Part used :

Rhizome (raw and dry)

Dosage :

Powder 2-4 g

Decoction 50-100 ml

Important Yoga’s  or  Formulations :

Ardraka rasayana, Ardraka Khaãvalehya, Nagaradi Kasaya,Ardraka ghrta, Ardraka Khanda, Soubhaya Suñti, Samasarkarã churna

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) Pratisyaya— Ardraka is given with milk (S.S.Ut. 24).

(2) Kaphaja Arsas— Ardraka and Kulastha are used (S.S.Ci.6)

(3) Murcha— Ardraka svarasa is used as Nasya (B.P.).

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