Daruharidra

Botanical Name : Berberis aristata DC.

Family : Berberidaceae.

Introduction :

Usually ‘Dãruharidrã’ along with Haridrã uses external application. Cocinium fenestratum (MENISPERMACEA) is used in South India as Dãruharidrã but in North India Berberis aristata uses as Dãruharidrã.

Scientific classification: Barberries make up the family Berberidaceae. The representative genus is Berberis. The common barberry is classified as Berberis vulgaris, the American barberry as Berberis canadensis, and the Colorado barberry as Berberis fendleri. The Japanese barberry is classified as Berberis thunbergii, the Magellan barberry as Berberis buxifolia, and the wintergreen barberry as Berberis julianae.IndianBarberries as Barberies aristata.

Names in different Indian languages :

English : Indian Barberry

Hindi : Jhar –i-haldi

Kannada : Maradasina

Malayalam : Maramannal

Sanskrit : Daruharidra, darvi

Tamil : Maramancal, mancalkoti

Telugu : Manu pasupu

Unani : Daarhald, Rasaut (extract), Zarishk (fruit).

Synonyms :

Pitachandana, Pitasaara, Harichandana, Kaaliyaka, Kalambaka, Daaruharidraa, Daaru, Daarvi, Daarunishaa, Daarurajani, Vrahitaphala, Valliphala, Sthirphala. Pushpaphala, Somakaa, Parjanyaa, Parjani, Kantkateri, Taarthya, Pachampachaa. Kaaliyaka

Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Charaka

Arsoghna, Kandüghna, Lekhaniya Läksadi

Susrutha

Haridrãdi, Mustadi

Vagbhata

Haridrãdi, Mustadi

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

Plants using in South India & North India are well identified, there is no confusion of this two drugs.

(1) The rocky mountain group B. aquifolium Pursh

(2) Dãruharidrã   – The Asiatic group i.e.; B. aristata

(3) The European group i.e.; B. vulgaris Linn.

(4)Berberis chitra.

(5)Berberis lycium.

(6) Kãliyaka  – Cosinium fenestratum   – South India

Berberis actinacantha

Berberis wilsonae

Berberis ottawensis

Morphology :

A large deciduous shrub, 2-3.6m high. Twigs whitish or pale yellowish brown,

Leaves- simple, 4-10 cm by 1.5-3 cm, obovate or elliptic, entire or toothed, base gradually narrowed, dark green above, pale beneath. Petiole 0-3 mm.

Inflorescence a simple drooping raceme, 3-6 cm. long. Densely flowered.

Fruit 7- 10 mm. long, ovoid, blue-black, distinct style.

Distribution & Habitat :

Northwestern Himalayas, Nilgiris, Kulu and Kumaon

Chemical constituents :

Berberine hydrochloride and sulphate, Berberine, Karachine (a protoberberine alkaloid), taxilamine, berberine, palmatine,jatrorrhizine, oxycanthine,

Properties :

Rasa Tikta, Kasaya

Guna Laghu, Rüksa

Virya Usna

Vipäka Katu

Karma :

Kapha-pittahara, Chedana, vranahara, varnya

stomachic, diuretic, hypotensive, antidysenteric, antibacterial, antifungal, bitter tonic in dyspepsia and debility.

Indication :

Prameha, Kustha, Netra roga, veta pradara, Kãmalã, Vrana, Visarpa

Fractures, for dressing wounds and ulcers, cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Part used :

Root, Stem, Fruit – extract (Rasãnjana)

Dosage :

Decoction 50-100ml;

fruit powder 5-l0g; extract-3g.

External uses :

Reduces inflammation or oedema. removes pain, cures and heals ulcers, also used for eye diseases like conjunctivitis, as rasajana

Internal uses :

Digestive system : liver stimulant. A larger dose is laxative. The fruit is very tasty. Daruharidra is a superior medicine in agnimandya, dysentery, jaundice and other liver disorders.

Circulatory system : Blood purifier and haemostatic agent. haridra acts on rakta dhatu.

Respiratory system : It is useful in the treatment of cough

Reproductive system : Useful in uterine inflammations and vaginal discharges.

Skin : Daruharidra decoction is useful in cleaning wounds. . It is  useful in ulcer.

Temperature : Diaphoretic and is a prophylactic treatment for typhoid, hence it is useful in common fever This preserves and increases the patient’s strength

Important Yogas or Formations :

Darvyadikwath, Darwadilaila. Rasanjanshuddhi Rasanjan                     

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) svëta pradara- Decoction of Dãruharidrã is given with honey (G.N.)

(2) meha- Decoction of Haridrã and Dãrtiharidrä is useful (S.S.Ci.)

(3) Vriddhi (kaphaja)- Däruharidrä paste is taken with cow’s urine (Vr.Mã.)

(4) Mütrákrichra- Juice of Dãruharidrã and Amalaki with honey (C.SCi.26)

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