Gokshura

Botanical Name : Tribulus terrestris Linn.

Family : Zygophyllaceae.

Introduction :

It is the one of the important mutrala drugs in Ayurveda

Names in different Indian languages :

English : Land-Caltrops, Puncture Vine

Hindi : Gokharu

Kannada : Negalu, sennanegalu

Malayalam : Nerinnil

Sanskrit : Gokshura

Tamil : Sirunenunji, Nerinjil, Nerunjil.

Telugu : Palleru

Unani : Khaar-e-Khasak Khurd

Synonyms :

Gokshuraka, Kshudra (Laghu) Gokharu, Shvadamshtraa, Swaadu-kantaka, Trikanta, Trikantaka.

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Charaka

Sothahara, Mutravirecaniya, Krmighna

Susrutha

Vidarigandhadi, Viratarvãdi, Laghu Pañcamüla Viratarvadi

Vagbhata

Vidarigandhadi

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

Larger var. is equated with Pedalium murex Linn. The fruits of both the varieties are conical and have four spines, not three as the synonyms denote. Hence, Acanthospermum hispidum DC. And Martynia annua Linn. Have been suggested as the source of Trikantaka.

1. Pedalium murex Linn

2. T. terrestris

3. X anthium strumarium

4. Martynia diandra

5. Acanthospermum hispidium

Pedalium mure (gaja gokshura)

Morphology :

A small, prostrate, hirsute or silky hairy herb.

Leaves-stipulate, compound, pinnate, opposite, usually unequal , pinnate; leaflets 6-8 pairs, oblong

Flowers solitary, axillary or leaf-opposed, yellow or white.

Fruits-globose, hairy, 5-angled, spinous with 2 long and 2 short spines on each cocci.

Seeds-obliquely pendulous. (Flowers and fruits during April- September).

Distribution & Habitat :

Dry places in India

Chemical constituents :

Sapogenins, diosgenin, gitogenin, chlorogenin, ruscogenin, rutin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferol, glucoside, rutinoside, tribuloside, carboline , harmane , harmine. Harmol

Properties :

Guna :  Guru, Snigdha

Vipaka : Madhura

Rasa : Madhura

Virya : Sita

Karma : Vãta-pitta hara, Vrsya, Mutrala, Rasayana,deepana, hridya, sulaghna

diuretic, demulcent, anti-inflammatory, anabolic, spasmolytic, muscle relaxant, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic

Indication :

Mütrakrichra, Prameha, Hrdroga, Arsas, vãta-Kãsa, Klaibya.

Anorexia, calculus affections, urolithiasis, crystalluria,bcardiopathy, scabies,  urinary discharges, pruritus, cough, asthma

Part used :

Whole plant

Dosage :

Leaf juice 10-15 ml

Powder 2-4 g

Decoction 50-100 ml

External Use :

Leaves are tied on wounds.

Internal Uses :

Nervous System : Analgesic and vatashamak. Therefore used in neural debility, painful conditions and vata disorders.

Digestive System : Stomachic, astringent, antihelmintic, but laxative in large dose., appetite, piles and helminthiasis.

Circulatory System : It is a cardio tonic, anti-inflammatory and helps in haemorrhagic

Fruit juice is useful in amoebiasis and splenomegaly.

Respiratory System : used in cough and asthma.

Reproductive System : useful in preventing abortion, vaginal disorders, impotency and post-natal discharges.

Urinary System : Diuretic, dissolves calculi and amorphous calculi. Therefore useful in urinary calculi, dysuria and cystitis,

Satmikaran : Useful in debility

Important Yogas or Formations :

Dasamoola katutraya, brihtyadi kashya, dasamoola kashaya, dasamoola navaneetham        

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) Vãjikarana— Powder of Goksura fruit is boiled with milk and consumed ( Ca. Ci)

(2) Amavãta— Decoction of Sunthi and Goksura  will be of useful (C. D.)

(3) Kesa Vardhana— Göksura and the flowers of Tila are applied externally by making them into paste using honey (Sa. Sam.)

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