Guggulu

Botanical Name: Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks) Engl.

Family: Burseraceae

 Introduction:

Gulggulu is described as ‘Agni sthãna’ and used for ‘Dhupa’. It show antibacterial activity. Resin of this plant uses.

Names in different Indian languages

English: Indian Bdellium,

Sanskrit : Guggulu

Hindi – Gugal

Malayalam: Gulgulu

Tamil: Erumaikan, Kungiliyam

Synonyms

Balsamodendron mukul Hook. ex Stocks.

Guggul, Devadhoop, Kaushika, Pur, Mahishaaksha, Palankash, Kumbha, Uluukhala.

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants)

1. Mahishaksha – (Mhashya guggul).black. for human use

 2. Mahaneed- blue.

3. Kurnud – white.

4. Padma – brown, for animal use,

5. Kanak – (Kanaguggul) – yellow, for human use.

6. Kana guggul – it is found in marwar, greenish yellow, soft and grannular,

7. Ehaisa (Mhasha) guggul -is found in Sindh and Kutch. greenish yellow but brittle and soft.

8.  Hirayca,

In absence of guggul,  Commiphora myrrh is used.

 Morphology

It is a small tree or shrub with spinescent branches.

Leaves- unifoliate, alternate or crowed at the end of short branches, cuneate-obovate, rhomboidal or oval, acute, deeply serrate, smooth and shining.

Flowers- small, sub sessile, 2-3 together, unisexual. Males with ovary short and barren; females with short stamens and imperfect anthers. Calyx cylindrical. Petals 4-5, star-shaped, brownish red, trips curled back.

Fruit- red drupes, ovate, acuminate, separating into 2 fleshy valves, leaving the nut enveloped by a 4-cleft yellow pulp. Nuts ovoid, acute, splitting into two, each 1-celled. (Flowers in March-April and Fruits later).

 Distribution & Habitat

Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka.

Chemical constituents

 Gugglsterones Z and E, guggulsterols I– V, diterpenoids; volatile oil, Gum- guggullignans I & II; guggulu tetrols; mukulol;allylcembrol; c-27 guggulusterols I, II & III; Z-and E-guggulusterol

Identification test for purity : Pure guggul is singdha, soft, sticky with sweet smell, bitter taste, yellowish tinge, soluble in water, not contaminated with mud or sand. Any variety other than these qualities should be considered as impure. Potency lasts for twenty years

Properties:

RASA-Tikta, katu

GUNA-Laghu, Ruksa, Visada, Süksma, Sara (old) Snigdha

VIRYA-Uhsna

VIPAKA-katu

Karma -Tridosahara, Rasayana, Vrsya (new), Lekhana (old)

inhibits platelet aggregation, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity

Srotogamitva

Dosha : tridoshaghna

 Dhatu : Mansa, meda {brihan – increases body weight), asthi – promotes union of fractures, shukra promotes fertility, rasayan- old -medokarshan.

 Organ : liver, skin

Indication:

Medoroga, Amavãta, Vãta vyadhi, Prameha, Apaci, Gandamãlã, Sotha, Pitakã, Ars, Kustha

obesity , rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, sciatica.

The gum is also used in hemiplegia and atherosclerotic disorders; as a gargle in pyrrhoea aveolaris, chronic tonsillitis and pharyngitis. Fumes are recommended in hay fever, chronic bronchitis and nasal catarrh.

Part used:

Resin

Dosage:

1-2 g

External uses : Anti inflammatory, analgesic, clearing of wound and healing due to antibacterial action . Paste of guggul is locally applied in rheumatoid arthritis, cervical lymphadenitis, skin diseases, piles etc. It reduces foul smell and swelling of wound. Its vapours are useful as deodorant and disinfectant in the house.

Internal uses:

Nervous system : Valashamak, analgesic, nervine tonic, so guggul is useful in neuralgia, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica, facial paralysis. hemiplegia and gout etc. It is welt known and popular medicine for vata disordess. Triphala + guggul is a popular medicine given internatty in wound

Digestive system : It is an appetizer by pungent and bitterness: laxative by snigdha. pichchila and tikshna; liver stimulant. antihaemorrboidal and anthetmintic by bitter and ushna gunas. Hence guggul is useful in loss of appetite constipation, liver diseases, piles and worms

Circulatory system : It is a cardiac tonic. It increases haemoglobin and leucocyte count and enhances blood quality.

Respiratory system : Expectorant being snigdha and pichchila. It is deodorant. anthelmintic. Useful in chronic cough and chronic asthma.

Urinary system : Lithotryptic due to tikshna and diuretic properties. Also useful in dysuria and gonorrhoea.

Reproductive system : Guggul is ushna, tikshna, increases sexual power and acts as an emmenagogue. It is also useful in oligosperima, impotency. dysmenorrhoea, Leucorrhoea and other gynaecological diseases ,infertility.

Important Yogas or Formations:

Shatdharana yoga, Yogaraja guggulu, Pañca Tikta Guggulu ghritam, Simhanãda guggulu, Cañdraprabhävati, Arogyavardhini Rasa, Navaka Guggulu, Amritãdi guggulu, Guggulu Tikta Kasaya, Kãncanãra guggulu, Kaisora guggulu, Goksurãdi guggulu.                                             

Therapeutic Uses:

(1) Udara- Guggulu shall be used (C.S.Ci.13).

(2) Kröshtuka sirsha vãta— Guggulu may be used with Triphalã decoction (V. M & V. S.)

(3) Urustambha—Guggulu to be taken with cow’s urine (V.M.).

(4) Amavãta—Haritaki, Guggulu and silajatu may be given with urine (A.H.Ci.21).

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