Jambu

Jambu

Botanical Name : Syzygium cuminii

Family : Myrtaceae

Introduction :

Jambu is mentioned in Vedià literature & rituals. Fruit/seed is mainly used in the management of diabetes & bark is used for diarrhoeal disorders.

Names in different Indian languages :

 Hindi : Jamun

Telugu : Neredu

 Tamil : Naval

English : Jaman, Black plum

Punjabi : Jamalu

Kanada : Nerale

Malayalam : naval

Bengali : Kala jam

Sanskrit : Jambuh

Unani : Jaamun

Synonyms :

Kökilesta, Pikabhaksa, Phaleñdra, Jãmbava, Jambu, Mahaaphalaa,

Surabhipatra

 Syzygium  jambolanum (Lam.) DC.

Eugenia jambolana Lam

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants)  :

1. Kãka Jambu (Jambu- Eugenia jambolana ,Syzygium cumini)

2. Jala Jambu (Ksudra Jambu , Bhümi Jambu,Nadi Jambu. – heyneana Wall./E. operculata Roxb.)

3. Rãja Jambu- Eugenia jambos L. (Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston

 Morphology :

It is a moderate-sized, glabrous tree about 18-20 m. height. 

Leaves- coriaceous, shining, entire, oval, oval-oblong or lanceolate-oblong, long-acuminate, lateral nerves numerous, parallel, confluent near the margin.

Flowers- greenish, tetramerous, in 3-flowered cymes, arranged. in broad trichotomous panicles. Calyx-tube funnel-shaped.

Fruit- berry, oblong or subglobose, purple or black, succulent, smooth when ripe.

Chemical Constituents :

Seed contains a glucoside – jamboline, ellagic acid, yellow essential oil, chlorophyll, resin, gallic acid, albssñrin etc.Bark has 12% gum.

Fruits eugenia triterpenoids A & B, oleanolic acid, malic acid, glucose, fructose, gallic acid

Stem bark & root-  Kaempferol , myricetin, quercetin

Leaves- citric, oxalic and glycollic acids; glucose, leucine, sitosterol, dihydromyricetin etc.

anthocyanins , citric, malic ,gallic acids, and tannins

Properties :

Rasa -Kasäya, Madhura, Amla

Guna -Laghu, Rüksa

Virya- Sita

Vipãka -Katu

Karma : Vãtavardhaka, Kapha-pitta hara, Grãhi

Astringent, digestive, anthelmintic, febrifuge, anti bacterial, stomachic, carminative, diuretic.

Indications :

Madhumeha, Atisara, Chardi, Raktapitta, Dãha, Vrana

leucorrhoea, fever, skin disease, diabetes(seed), ulcer

Part Used :

Fruit, leaf, stem bark

Dosage :

Fresh juice 25-50 ml; powder 4-6 g.

External Uses :

Astringent, refrigerant and cures skin disorders. The bark powder is sprinkled in bleeding disorder: Fruit pulp mixed with sesame oil is applied in burning condition, in sannipat jwara (fever caused by all the three doshas) associated with burning. The oil boiled with the leaves is used face application.

Internal Uses :

Digestive system: Its fruit is an appetizer, digestive and liver stimulant. liver function associated with diabetes is improved by seed powder. It is also an astringent. Leaves are anathematic while bark is astringent.Excessive use fruits causes constipation. The fruits and fruit juice are effective in disorders like loss of appetite, indigestion, pain and dysentery.

Circulatory system : Haemostatic. Leaf juice is used in haemorrhagic disorders. Jambul seeds are used in menorrhagia and diarrhoea 

Urinary system : The frill and seed powder along with milk helps in glucose metabolism in the liver, due to which blood and urine sugar levels become low causing hypoglycemia. Fruit and seed powder are the best medicines in ikshumeha and udakameha.

Srotogamitva :

Dosha Kaphapittaghna, vatavardhak.

Dhatu : Meda and majja (diabetes mellitus),

Mala : Mutra, purisha (astringent).

 Jambu is the, topmost vatavardhak medicine,

Important Yogas  or  Formulations :

Jambvasava, Jambvädi ghrta, Jambvãdi taila

Important research work going on :

(1) Anti-diabetic property

 (2) Anorexigenic activity

(3) Hypoglycaemic activity

(4) anti-inflammatory

(5) treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery

(6) antipyretic activities

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