Kupilu

Botanical Name: Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.

Family: Loganaceae

Introduction:

It is using as the poisonous drug. It is a spinal poison.

Names in different Indian languages

English: Nux-vomica,strychnine tree,snake wood,poison nut,quaker button

Hindi: Kucchala

Kannada: Kanjira

Malayalam: Kanjiram

Sanskrit: Kupilu

Tamil: Etti,kancirai,Yettikkottai.

Telugu: Musti

Synonyms

Kapilu, Kaakatinduka, Kaakendu, Kaakapiluka, Vishamushtikaa, Vishamushti, Vishatinduka, Kuchilaa, Ksuchalaa.

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants)

 1. S. cinnamomifolia

2. S. wallichiana

3. S. colubrina

4. S. malaccensis

5. visamusti

6. kesamusti

7. sumusti

8. anumustika

9. ksupadodi

10. kakatiduka

Morphology

An evergreen deciduous tree, 5-18 m in height.

Leaves— simple, opposite, ovate, 5-nerved, glabrous, obtuse.

Flowers— numerous, greenish white, borne on terminal pubescent pendenculate, corymbose cymes.

Fruits— large, about 4 cm diameter, globose berries, orange red  when ripe.

Seeds— many, about 1.5 cm diameter discoid with fine grey silky hair.

Flowers during March-April and fruits ripen during winter.

Distribution & Habitat

Throughout tropical India, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orrissa and West Bengal, ascending upto an altitude of 1500 m.

Chemical constituents:

 Strychnine, Brucine, vomicine, Kajine & novacine (N-methyl pseudobrucine); strychnine & isostrychine; Cuchiloside, loganic acid, alpha-and beta-colubrine, condylocarpine, diaboline, geissoschizine,isostrychnine, normacusine, novacine, pseudobrucine, pseudo- alpha-colubrine, pseudo-beta-colubrine, pseudostrychnine and vomicine , Loganin

Properties:

Rasa Katu, Tikta

Guna Laghu

Vipaka Katu

Virya Usna

Karma: Kapha-vatahara, Vataghna, Grahi

Anthelmintic, digestive, purgative, stimulant, constipation

Srotogamitva:

Dosha : Alleviates vata, kapha.

Dhatu : Rakta (cures dermatoses).

Main Purisha (antihaemorrhoids), mutra (antidiuretic).

Organs Stomach, rectum (piles).

Part Used— Seeds, root bark.

Dosage— Powder 60-250 mg.

Indications— Kandu, Kustha, Vataroga, Vrana, arsas

diabetes, insomnia, cardiopalmus, skin disease, paralysis, weakness of limbs, small amount causes muscle relaxation, insomnia, hysteria, epilepsy, paralytic and neurological affections, retention or nocturnal incontinence of urine, spermatorrhoea, sexual debility and impotence, antidote to alcoholism.

Uses

External uses Vatashamak, it alleviates pain, oedema and is an analgesic. It is used for external application in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis. An application of Nux vomica seeds with turmeric cures oozing and foul smelling ulcers. This paste is also effective in ulcers with toxic symptoms. The pulp of the leaves useful in oozing ulcers.

Internal uses

Central nervous system : It alleviates vata and pain and because of its sharpness. it stimulates and strengthens nerves. Useful in vata disorders like neuralgia, facial palsy, hemiplegia, insomnia, Excess dose leads to intoxication and convulsions.

Digestive system : Being bitter and pungent, it is ,a good appetizer, digestive and astringent. Useful in abdominal pain by ushna and vata alleviating property. It is used in loss of appetite, gastric inflammation, amadosha, colitis, piles and parasitic infection. It is the best medicine for gastric laxity and spasm.

Circulatory system Being ushna and tikshna, it is a cardiac stimulant and hypertensive. It alleviates oedema caused by kapha. Useful in disorders like cardiac laxity.

Antidote : As soon as toxic symptoms appear, give stomach wash and give cow’s ghee along with cow’s milk. Use antidotes like opium, belladona, camphor. ganja and tobacco.

Purification of seeds : Seeds of nux-vomica are soaked in cow’s urine for 7 days. Then outer covering is removed and the seeds are cooked with cow’s milk. Then they are fried in cow’s ghee. (This nux vomica is used in medicines). These roasted seeds have specific savour. (In hoarseness of voice caused by excessive talking, tobacco addiction induced blindness, nocturia in children, impotency caused by excess sexual intercourse and old age. dysponea and morning sickness in pregnant women. purified nux-vomica (seed) ground in a fine powder should be used along with milk and sugar. Now days modern treatment has changed widely but about 2 decades ago, modern doctors used tincture nux vomica’ in their prescription. Nux vumnica is a Latin name which means nut which causes vomiting.

Important formulation: Agnitundi vati, Vãtagajankusa ras, Krimirnudgara rasa, Visatinduka tada, Visatjnduka vati, Käraskara ghrta.

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