Nagakesara

Botanical Name : Mesua ferrea Linn.

Family : Clusiaceae

Introduction :

It used as lepana for visarpa (bala rogas). Susrutha & Vagbhata used synonyms of this plant, this also coming under chaturjataka.

Names in different Indian languages :

English : Iron-wood, Mesu

Hindi : Nagakesar

Kannada : Nagasampige

Malayalam : Nagappuvu,nanku,nagachempakam, vayanavu,churuli,eliponkhu

Sanskrit : Nagapushpah, nagakesarah

Tamil : Nagakesaram ,Sirunagappo,nanku

Telugu : Nagakesaramu, gajapuspam

Unani : Naarmushk

Synonyms :

Naagapushpa, Chaampeya, Naaga, Naagakinjalika, Ahipushpa, Ahi Puspa, Kanakãhva, Kañcanãhvaya, Kiñijilkam, Kesaram, Cãmpeyam, Natam, Nagam, Naga Kiñjilkam, Naga Puspam, Naga renuka, Piñjaram,Phani pannagam, Rukmam, Suvarnam, Hema pusam

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Susrutha : Elãdi, Vacãdi, Anjanãdi, Priyangvadi ganas

Vagbhata : EIädi, Vacädi, Anjanadi, Priyangvadi ganas

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

(1) Naga kesara – Mesua ferrea Linn

(2) Pacima kesara – Ochrocarpus longifolius Benth & Hook, f., (lal varieties)

(3) Punnaga – Calphyllum inopylrur linn

(4) Karu Nagakesara – Cinnamomum wightii/ C. tamala

(5) Dillenia pentagyna-malabar naga kesara

Mesua nagassarium (Burm. f.) Kosterm

Morphology :

It is a medium sized tree; bark ash-coloured.

Leaves- 8- 12 by 3-4 cm. oblong-lanceolate, acute acuminate, glabrous above and glaucous beneath, petioles 6-8 mm. long.

Flowers- white coloured, 2-2.5cm. deameter, axillary or terminal, stamens are numerous, golden-yellow coloured.

Fruit- 2.5-3 cm. long.Ovoiad.seed- 1-4, angular, smooth, chestnut brown in colour.

Distribution & Habitat :

Along western ghats of Konkan and Malabar area, Tamil nadu.

Chemical constituents :

Xanthones, euxanthone, mesuaxanthones,A and B,Mesuol , Mesuaxanthone B- and euxanthone MammeiSin ,Maminegin ,mesuol , mesuaferrofle glycoside- cyclohaxodione- mesuaferrol, Octadecatriefloic and hexadecanoic acids

Karma :

Kapha- Pittahara Pramãti, Grãhi, Pachan, Visahara, sotha hara, Kandughna, Kushtaghana,antidysenteric. ,astringent, haemostatic, anti-inflammatory, stomachic, antibacterial, antifungal

Indication :

Raktaras Raktatisãra, Rakta Pradara, Kustha, Visarpa, Jvara, Chardi, Vãta rakta, sopha, Vãta roga, siro roga, Trsnã, Visa roga,cough, bleeding piles,metrorrhagia, leucorrhoea, fever, ulcers

Part used :

Flower, Stamens, leaf

Dosage :

Dosage : Powder of stamens 1-3g. orally.

Leaf juice : 10-15 ml

Powder :  2-4 g

Decoction :  50-100 ml

External uses :

Lepana in visarpa

Internal uses :

Central nervous system : it is useful in brain debility and hysteria.

Digestive system : It is an appetizer, mainly digestive, antidipsetic, antiemetic, antihaeniorrhoid, astringent and vermicide. It also acts as a haemostatic in bleeding piles.

Circulatory system : it is used in cardiac debility, rakta pitta, and blood disorders.

Respiratory system : It is used in cough induced by kapha, dyspnoea anti hiccoughs

Reproductive system : It is used as an aphrodisiac

Urinary system : Diuretic, hence useful in retention of urine.

Skin : Kushthaghna..

Temperature : Febrifuge. Useful in fever.

Satmikaran : It is used as a .tonic and antidote,

Important Yogas or Formations :

Kanakasava,catujataka,eladichurna,kesaradi kasayam.

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) Rakta Aras— Naga kesara cürna (2-3gm) shall be administered orally alongwith butter and sugar (C.S.Ci.14/210)’

(2) Hikkã— Nagakesara cürna (2-4gm) is given orally with honey and sugar along with (S.S.Ut.50/24)2.

(3) Rakta Pradara— Nagakesara cürna is to orally administered while consuyming plenty or butter-milk daily

(4) Sveta Pradara— Naga kesara is soaked in the buttermilk and administered orally for 3 days (V. S. & Y. R.)4.

(5) Rakta Atisãra— Nãga kesara churna with sugar (V. S.)5.

(6) Pumsavana— The lady who wants to have a female child should consume Nagakesara along with ghee (5gm dose daily) during the period of ovulation (Rtu kãla)- (R. M.)’.

(7) Garbhasrava- Powders of Naga kesara and Püga (beetle nut) are mixed together and given orally.

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