Pippali

Botanical Name : Piper longum

Family : Piperaceae   

Introduction :

Pippali used as rasayana & treatment of piles, kasa. In Indian  mythology reveals that Pippali has its origin during Samdura mathana along with Amrta (elixer).

Names in different Indian languages :

Hindi : Pipala,pipal

Telugu : pippallu

Tamil : Tippili, pippili,Arisi thippili

English : Long pepper

Bengali : pipali

Marathi : pipali

Panjabi : Maghaun

Kannada : Hipli

Malayalam : Tippali

Sanskrit : Pippali,magadhi

Unani : Filfil Daraaz,Daarfilfil

Synonyms :

Maagadhi, Maagadha, Maagadhaa, Maagadhikaa, Magadhodbhavaa, Vaidehi, Upkulyaa, Pippalikam, Chapalaa, Kanaa, Krishnaa. Uushnaa, Shaundi, Kolaa, Tikshna-tandulaa

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Charaka : Dipaniya Kanthya, Asthapanopaga, sirovirecanopaga, sitaprasamana, süla prasamana, Kãsahara, Hikkanigrahana, Trptighna,Vamana.

Susrutha : Pippalyãdi, urdhvabhagahana, Tryusana (Trikatu) Amalakäyãdi, sirovirecana

Vagbhata : Pippalyãdi (A.S.)

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

1. Pippali – P. longum

2. Gaja Pippali -P. chaba

3. Simhali Pippali – Cylone variety

4. Vana Pippali.

5. Assam pippali

6. Piper  salvelous

Morphology :

An aromatic slender climber.

Stems— Creeping, jointed, attached to other plants while climbing. swollen at nodes

Leaves— alternate, 6-10 cm x 3-5 cm, subacute, entire, glabrous, reticulate venation, cordate at the base.  Lower one broadly ovate, cordate, upper one oblong, oval

Flowers— in pendulate spikes. straight; male larger and slender; female 1.5-2.5 cm x 4-5 mm dia.

Fruits— yellowish orange berries , aboid, sunk in fleshy spike.

Flowers in rainy season and fruits in autumn.

Distribution & Habitat :

Found in the hotter parts of India, from central

Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills. Also found in forests of western ghats from Konkan to Kerala.

Chemical constituents :

Piperine, aristolactams, dioxoaporphines, isobutyl amide, longamide, besides guineensine, the lignans, pluviatilol, methyl pluviatilol (fargesin), sesamin , asarinine, Essential oil, mono- and sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene  (mainly). piplartine, piperlongumine, pipercide. sesamin, – four aristohtctams (cepharanonle B. aristolactum All. piperlactum A and piperolactam B.) 

Properties :

Rasa : Katu

Guna : Laghu. Snigdha. Tiksna (Ardra—Guru)

Virya :  Usna (Ardra-Sita)

Vipãka : Madhura

Karma : (Ardra-Kapha vardhaka), Dipana, Vrsya, Rasayana

digestive, appetizer, carminative, haematinic, expectorant, sedative

Indication :

 Udara. Pliharoga, jvara, Kustha, Prameha, Gulma, Arsas,sula, Amavata .cough, bronchitis, asthma

 Roots are bitter, thermogenic, diuretic,  purgative, expectorant, digestive. Useful in gout, splenopathy, lumbago

Pipali are thermogenic, laxative, carminative, digestive, anti septic. Useful in anorexia, colic, fever, epilepsy, haemorrhoids, gout

Part used : Fruit, root

Dosage :

Powder 1-2 g.

External uses :

Internal uses :

Important Yogas  or  Formulations :

Pippalyãdi ghrta, Pippalyasava, Vyosãdi

Vati, Yakritplihãri loha, Yãkrta pippali yoga, Causastaprahara pippali, Pippalyãdi leha.

Important research work  going on :


(1) Antitubercular activity

(2) Anti-inflammatory activity

 (3) Antifertility effect

(4) Suppression of cough reflex

 (5) Respiratory stimulation

(6) Serum proteins level

(7) Central stimulant activity

(8) Antipyretic activity

 (9) Anthelmintic activity

Therapeutic Uses :

(1) Kamala— Pippali is used as Nasya and Añjana (G.N.)

(2) Rasayana— Ghee prepared with Pippali & milk will be useful (V.S.).

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