Punarnava

Botanical Name : Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

Family : Nyctaginaceae

Introduction :

This drug used as diuretic. It is also used as a Rasãyana. Some people says this plant is not punarnava it is varshabu, according to them  punarnava and varshabu are different.

Names in different Indian languages :

English : Spreading Hog weed,pig weed

Bengali : Punanava

Panjabi : Itsit

Marathi : Ghetuli

Kanada : sandika

Malayalam : Thazhutama

Hindi : Sant,gadahpurna

Telugu : Attamamidi

Unani : Itsit,Bishkhaparaa

Sanskrit : Punarnava,sophaghni

Tamil : Mukaratte-Kirai

Synonyms :

Rakta-punarnavaa, Punarnavaa, Katthilla, Shophaghni, Shothaghni. Varshaabhu

Boerhavia  repens Linn.

Boerhavia  procumbens Roxb

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata :

Charaka

Vayahsthpana, Kasahara, Anuvusanopaga, Svedopaga

Susrutha

Susruta Vidarigandhadi

Vagbhata

Varieties & adulterants – (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) :

1. Rakta – B. diffusa

2. Sveta Punarnavä – Trianthema portulacastrum

3. B. erecta – white coloured species

4. B.repens

5. T. monogyna

6. Boerhavia verticillata – substitute

Trianthema protulacastrum

Trianthema protulacastrum

B.repens

Morphology :

A perennial creeping herb with procumbent branches.

Root— stout, many procumbent , woody. Branches— diffuse.

Leaves— opposite, unequal pair,sub cordate, glabrous, .

Flowers— pale rose or white  small or minute, borne in small umbels arranged in axillary and terminal panicles.

Fruits— 5-ribbed, spherical, glandular, 1-1.5  cm long.

Flowering and fruiting occur during winter.

Chemical Constituents :

xanthone, beta-ecdysone. arbinofuranoside, Hentriacontane, beta-sitosterol, oxalic acid. D-glucose, punarnavoside. punarnavine-I. punarnavine-2. boeravinones A, B, C etc.

Properties :

Rasa  Madhura  Tikta  Kasäya

Guna Laghu, Rüksa

Virya  Usna

Vipaka Katu

Karma : Kapha-vata hara, sothahara, tarpana, rasayana, balya, Dipana

Diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, spasmolytic, antibacterial, cardiac stimulant,  laxative, expectorant, anti inflammatory, analgesic, expectorant, CNS depressant,  abortifacient.

Indications :

sopha, Pandu, Visaroga, Raktapitta, Vriddhi, Udara, Hridroga, svãsa, mutrachrichra

inflammatory renal diseases, nephrotic syndrome,leucorrhoea, scabies, urinary tract infection, cough, constipation, myalgia, anaemia, bronchitis.

Part Used :

Whole plant, root, leaf.

Dosage :

Fresh juice 5-10 ml, powder 1-3 g.

External uses :

Punarnava is used for local application in the form of poultice or fomentation in edema. The juice of its leaves is used in the eyes for topical application.

Internal uses :

Digestive system : It is given internally in agnimandya, toxicity, ascites and constipation. A dose of 3 grains is used to induce vomiting.

Circulatory system : Useful in heart disease, anaemia, oedema. Leaves vegetable is consumed to reduce oedema.

respiratory system : Useful in cough, asthma and urahkshat.

Reproductive system : Menorrhagia, (root decoction of red variety is used). Seeds are, aphrodisiac. Eye diseases: Cataract, chronic conjunctivitis, blepharitis, (roots rubbed in honey is locally applied).

Urinary system : Acts as a diuretic in dysurea.

Skin : Useful in reducing swelling and foul smelling in skin disorders.

Temperature : Antipyretic, especially in quaternary fever.

Satmikaran : As a rasayan therapy in- general debility.

Antidote to snake poison and rat bite (used internally).

Important Yogas or Formations :

Punarnavadi Kvãtha, Punamavarista, Punarnavãdi mandura, Punãrnavadi taila, Punarnavã rasayana. Punarnavashtak, Punarnavasav

Important research work going on :

(1) cholesterol and blood sugar level

(2) haemostatic effect

(3) diuretic activity

(4) anti-inflammatory activity

(5) Cardio tonic effect

(6) fibrinolytic activity

(7) chronotropic effects

(8) hepatoprotective activity

(9) effect on calcium channel

Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Nidränãsa— Decoction of Punarnavã is very useful (H. S.).

(2) Sotha— Ghee prepared with the decoction and paste of Punarnava is given (C.D.).

(3) Alarka visa— sveta Punarnavã is given with Dhattüra fruits (A.S.Ut. 46)

(4) Plihodara— sveta punarnáva root is pounded with rice- water and given orally.

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