Botanical Name : Pinus roxburghii Sarg.
Family : Pinaceae
Names in different Indian languages :
English : Chir pine,three leaved pine
Hindi : cid,sarala
Kannada : Sarala
Malayalam : Charalam,Saralam
Sanskrit : saralah
Tamil : Caraladevataru
Telugu : Sarala
P. longifolia Roxb
Sarala, Pita-vriksha, Surabhidaaruka, Dhuupavriksha,Namasu.
Pinus roxburghii is a large tree reaching 30–50 m (98–164 ft) with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m (6.6 ft), exceptionally 3 m (10 ft). The bark is red-brown, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, thinner and flaky in the upper crown. The leaves are needle-like, in fascicles of three, very slender, 20–35 cm (7.9–13.8 in) long, and distinctly yellowish green.
The cones are ovoid conic, 12–24 cm (4.7–9.4 in) long and 5–8 cm (2.0–3.1 in) broad at the base when closed, green at first, ripening glossy chestnut-brown when 24 months old. They open slowly over the next year or so, or after being heated by a forest fire, to release the seeds, opening to 9–18 cm (3.5–7.1 in) broad. The seeds are 8–9 mm (0.31–0.35 in) long, with a 40 mm (1.6 in) wing, and are wind-dispersed.
Pinus roxburghii is closely related to Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine), Pinus brutia (Turkish pine) and Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), which all share many features with it. It is a relatively non-variable species, with constant morphology over the entire range.